Archive for the ‘c++’ Category

Rough strategy sketch

Wednesday, March 22nd, 2006

I think I promised a general strategy post & a status report, some time ago. Here goes.

Development strategy

I am currently sharing my efforts between two development efforts. One of them, ViEmu, has been available for almost 8 months now. It has improved, a lot, and sales have been steadily climbing. Although not a stellar success, it’s working well beyond my realistic forecasts (not beyond my wildest dreams), and I’m really happy that I decided to do it.

The second one, code-named NGEDIT, has been in development for a bit over a year, and it’s still not ready for release. In the time I’ve been developing it, both my belief in the concept, and my disrespect for my own time estimations, have grown a lot. I would be very happy to release 1.0 around July or August, one year after the release of ViEmu, but I know it’s still optimistic. And that’s after I’ve decided to cut out most of the stuff for version 1.0!

Of course, apart from these clear-cut fronts, and not including my day job, there are other fronts I have to attend. Customer support, for example, or this blog, for that matter.

I’ll try to summarize, in a general sense, what my current plans for the next few months are. What the main goals are, and how I’m planning to achieve them.

The #1 goal, as you can guess, is to release NGEDIT version 1.0. This is a bit trickier than sounds. The act of releasing it is, in a general sense, more important than the exact functionality it brings. I have come to this conclusion after over a year in development, and the experience of ViEmu. Emotionally, it’s much better to be working on improving an existing product than it is to be working on a product for its first release, with no users or customers. As long as you are not too impatient to get a lot of sales, having actual users & feedback is a big boost for motivation. Having a few sales helps, as well. And, as long as the product is good and there is a need, sales only get higher as you improve the product.

In order to get this process working, I’ve cut out many planned features from 1.0, in order to release it before long. You might ask, why don’t you already release it in its current stage?

A common answer, but not too informative, would be to answer that it’s still too basic, or unusable. Well, not completely true, as I use it. But a better answer would involve some thought on the market I’m getting in. The text editor market is pretty saturated, and most products out there have many man-years of effort built in. There is at least a general perception of things a text editor must have. I think releasing it without these features would be too much of a stretch. Rest assured, I’ve carefully removed everything which isn’t essential for 1.0. As with ViEmu 1.0, the first release will be pretty basic, but it will hopefully be a better tool for at least some people out there, and that should trigger the initial dynamic of usage-feedback-improvement.

Apart from these essential elements, NGEDIT 1.0 will also sport some interesting things that are well outside the minimum requirements list. The very complete vi/vim emulation, for one, or the native management of text in any format (no conversion on load/save). There are a few more, but these are probably the most interesting to talk about. There are two main forces that have resulted in this uncommon feature set. The first is that I’m building NGEDIT 1.0 as the core framework for the really advanced features, which have some unique requirements. And the second is that I’m building it to become my favorite editor first, and only then a commercial product. This results in the need of powerful vi/vim emulation, which is bound not to have much relevance as a commercial feature.

So, we could say the road to NGEDIT 1.0 is drawn by three guiding principles, listed in increasing priority:

  • III: Build a good foundation for the future versions of the editor, if not fully realized, at least following a scalable design
  • II: Release the minimum product that makes sense
  • I: Build my favorite editor

This is not a list of principles I try to adhere to. It’s more of a recollection of the kind of decisions I’ve found myself taking on intuitive grounds. I’ve seen that I will trade the best design for some functionality, in order to be closer to release, and I’ve found that I’ve traded every sensible business principle by deciding to implement some very complete (and costly) vi/vim emulation. The fact that my sticking to vi/vim emulation has resulted in ViEmu, which is a nice product, (kind of) validates the principles. Actually, I think it validates them because I find myself enjoying the effort, which helps in sustaining the long term effort, and the business is gaining momentum. Apart from this, the ViEmu experience has been an incredible sandbox where to learn, and the lessons learned will play a nice role towards the actual release of NGEDIT. For example, the Google SEO front, and also the adwords & clickfraud front.

In a general strategic view, I’m meshing my efforts on NGEDIT 1.0 with steadily improving ViEmu. Even if ViEmu doesn’t have the business potential of NGEDIT, I think that making all the customers of ViEmu happy only helps with the later stages of building the business. One thing to which I haven’t paid too much attention is marketing ViEmu. I think I could easily improve the sales performance of ViEmu with some effort, but I also think this efforts falls on the other side of the line “makes sense over working on NGEDIT”. So far, a bit of Google-tweaking, a bit of adwords, a bit of word-of-mouth, and a deserted market have been successful in building up sales.

This is very different from what I think I should do if ViEmu were the product on which I wanted to base my business. I would have to be working 100% in promoting it while steadily improving it. But, frankly, I don’t think ViEmu would be a sensible sole-business product. Not everyone is dying for vi/vim emulation.

So, what do all the above principles result in, as practical acting? The first point is that, for the past few months, I’ve been (a)improving ViEmu little by little and releasing new versions, (b)designing and working on the core architecture of NGEDIT, and (c)crossporting ViEmu’s vi/vim core to NGEDIT. The reason for the third point was that, upon using NGEDIT myself, I was sorely missing good vi/vim functionality. It already had some nice vi/vim emulation, written in NGEDIT’s own scripting language, which was the seed for ViEmu, but ViEmu had grown way beyond this seed. Thus, principle (I) kicked in, and I started to crossport ViEmu’s vi/vim engine.

Why do I say crossport? The reason is that I have been rewriting the core in such a way that it can be used both within NGEDIT and within ViEmu. This has had some major requirements on the design of ngvi, as I like to call the new core, and it’s a reason it’s taken some serious time to develop. This effort has some nice side effects:

  • I now have a super-flexible vi/vim core that I can integrate in other products, or use to develop vi/vim plugins for other environments (ah, if only solving interaction problems with other plugins weren’t the worst part!).
  • I can now put in work that benefits both products.
  • I’ll talk about it later, but I have come up with some neat new programming tricks due to this effort. The payoff for this will come later on, but it’s there anyway.

The new core is almost finished, with only ex command line emulation left to be crossported. For testing, this core is being used in NGEDIT. That way, ViEmu can advance as a separate branch. As soon as ngvi is finished, I will start implementing ViEmu 2.0 based on ngvi. This new core already brings some functionality that ViEmu is lacking, and I will be just plain happy that most of ViEmu is now officially part of NGEDIT.

And after this, I have a couple major features in NGEDIT that need to be implemented, and a gazillion minor loose ends. If you are an experienced developer, you’ll know it’s those loose ends that put the July/August release date in danger.

Names, names, names

As I mentioned recently, NGEDIT will not be the name of the final product. I already have the candidate for the name, and there’s only one thing pending before it becomes official: I need to check it with a Japanese person. I haven’t been very successful through asking here on the blog, or through asking the Japanese customers of ViEmu. Understandably, I haven’t insisted too much on my Japanese customers – they are customers after all!

I don’t want to reveal the name just yet, as I don’t want even more confusion if it ends up not being the final name. I would also like to have at least a placeholder page ready when I reveal the name.

Apart from this name change, I also intend to do something with the blog’s name. I plan to blog more and more in the future, as the business doesn’t critically require all my energy. I also plan to cover other areas: programming languages, software design, A.I., O.S.S., operating systems, I’d even like to write on things like economy or the psychology of programming! I think a more general name would be a good idea.

Given that the new editor will have its own new name, that I plan to move ViEmu to is own domain (, already up with a simple page), and that the blog needs another name, will very likely end up pretty empty.

All that pagerank accumulated for nothing… sigh! In any case, now should be the best moment to do the deep reforms.

I’ll let you know as these names are ready for general exposure.

Tha blog

If anyone has been reading long enough, you will have probably noticed that I post less often that I used to. The main reason is that development itself already drains most of my available energy. There is not much I can do about that, except wait for days where I have more energy, and wait for the moment when NGEDIT is already released. I will feel much better when NGEDIT is out there, and I think I’ll be able to concentrate better on other things. Having put so much effort so far, and not having it available for download & for sale puts a lot of pressure.

But there are also other reasons. For one, I have many interesting topics I’d like to cover, but which I don’t want to cover just yet. I prefer to wait until I have a working product, before bringing up some of these areas. Should be better business-wise.

This ends up meaning that I don’t want to write about the stuff I want to write about. Ahem.

Anyway, I have come up with an area I’d like to cover with a series of posts. It’s about the techniques I have been using for the development of ngvi, which could be described as the application of dynamic & functional programming to C++. Part of the techniques will be applicable to C++ only, but many other apply to general imperative/OO programming. Hopefully it will be interesting to (some of) you.

The lie of C++ exceptions

Thursday, November 17th, 2005

As part of the ongoing work on NGEDIT, I’m now establishing the error management policy. The same way that I’m refactoring the existing code to use my new encoding-independent string management classes, I’m also refactoring it to a more formal error handling policy. Of course, I’m designing along the way.

Probably my most solid program (or, the one on which I felt more confident) was part of a software system I developed for a distribution company about 9 years ago. The system allowed salesmen to connect back to the company headquarters via modem (the internet wasn’t everywhere back then!) and pass on customers’ orders every evening. I developed both the DOS program that ran on their laptops, and the server that ran on AIX. I developed the whole system in C++ – gcc on AIX, I can’t remember what compiler on the DOS side. Lots of portable classes to manage things on both sides. As a goodie, I threw in a little e-mail system to communicate between them and with hq, which was out of spec – and I managed to stay on schedule! It was a once-and-only-once experience, as mostly all my other projects have suffered of delays – but the project I had just done before was so badly underscheduled and underbudgeted that I spent weeks nailing the specs to not fall in the same trap.

The part I felt was most important to keep solid was the server part – salesmen could always redial or retry, as it was an interactive process. The server part was composed of a daemon that served incoming calls on a serial port, and a batch process that was configured to run periodically and export the received files to some internal database system.

How did I do the error management? I thought through every single line in the process, and provided meaningful behavior. Not based on exceptions, mind you. Typical processing would involve sending out a warning to a log file, cleaning up whatever was left (which required its own thinking through), and returning to a well-known state (which was the part that required the most thinking through). I did this for e-v-e-r-y s-i-n-g-l-e high-level statement in the code. This meant: opening a file, reading, writing, closing a file (everyone typically checks file opens, but in such a case I felt a failure in closing a file was important to handle), memory management, all access to the modem, etc…

C++ brought exceptions. I’m not 100% sure yet, but I think exceptions are another lie of C++ (I believe it has many lies which I haven’t found documented anywhere). It promises being able to handle errors with much less effort, and it also promises to allow you to build rock-solid programs.

The deal is that exceptions are just a mechanism, and this mechanism allows you to implement a sensible error handling policy. You need a rock solid policy if you really want to get failproof behavior, and I haven’t seen many examples of such policies. What’s worse, I haven’t yet been able to figure out exactly how it should look like.

Furthermore, exceptions have a runtime cost, but the toughest point is that they force you to write your code in a certain way. All your code has to be written such that if the stack is unwound, stuff gets back automatically to a well-known-state. This means that you need to use the RAII technique: Resource-Acquisition-Is-Initialization. This covers the fact that you have to relinquish the resources you have acquired, such that it doesn’t leak them. But that is only part of returning to a well-known state! If you are doing manipulation of a complex data structure, it’s quite probable that you will need to allocate several chunks of memory, and any one of them may fail. It can be argued that you can allocate all memory in advance and only act if all that memory is actually available – but then, this would force your design around this: either you concentrate resource acquisition in a single place for each complex operation, or you design every single action in your design in two phases – first one to perform all necessary resource acquisition, second one to actually perform the operation.

This reminds me of something… yeah, it is similar what transaction-based databases do. Only elevated to the Nth degree, as a database has a quite regular structure, and your code usually doesn’t. There are collections, collections within collections, external resources accessed through different APIs, caches to other data-structures, etc…

So, I think in order to implement a nice exception-based policy, you have to design a two-phase access to everything – either that, or an undo operation is available. And you better wrap that up as a tentative resource acquisition – which requires a new class with its own name, scope, declaration, etc…

Not to talk about interaction between threads, which elevates this to a whole new level…

For an exceptions-based error-handling policy, I don’t think it is a good design to have and use a simple “void Add()” method to add something a collection. Why? Because if this operation is part of some other larger operation, something else may fail and the addition has to be undone. This means either calling a “Remove()” method, which will turn into explicit error management, or using a “TTentativeAdder” class wrapping it around, so that it can be disguised as a RAII operation. This means any collection should have a “TTentativeAdder” (or, more in line with std C++’s naming conventions, “tentative_adder”).

I don’t see STL containers having something like that. They seem to be exception-aware because they throw when something fails, but that’s the easy part. I would really like to see a failproof system built on top of C++ exceptions.

Code to add something to a container among other things often looks like this:

void function(void)
  //... do potentially failing stuff with RAII techniques ...


  // ... do other potentially failing stuff with more RAII techniques

At first, I thought it should actually look like this:

void function(void)
  //... do potentially failing stuff with RAII techniques ...

  std::vector<item>::tentative_adder add_op(m_vector_whatever, item);

  // ... do other potentially failing stuff with more RAII techniques


But after thinking a bit about this, this wouldn’t work either. The function calling this one may throw after returning, so all the committing should be delayed to a controllably final stage. So we would need a system-wide “commit” policy and a way to interact with it…

The other option I see is to split everything in very well defined chunks that affect only controlled areas of the program’s data, such that each one can be tentatively done safely… which I think requires thinking everything through in as much detail as without exceptions.

The only accesses which can be done normally are those guaranteed to only touch local objects, as those will be destroyed if any exception is thrown (or, if we catch the exception, we can explicitly handle the situation).

And all this is apart from how difficult it is to spot exception-correct code. Anyway, if everything has to be done transaction-like, it should be easier to spot it – suddenly all code would only consist in a sequence of tentatively-performing object constructions, and a policy to commit everything at the “end”, whatever the “end” is in a given program.

I may be missing something, and there is some really good way to write failproof systems based on exceptions – but, to date, I haven’t seen a single example.

I’ll keep trying to think up a good system-wide error handling policy based on exceptions, but for now I’ll keep my explicit management – at least, I can write code without enabling everything to transaction-like processing, and be able to explicitly return stuff to a well-known safe state.

This was my first attempt at a shorter blog entry – and I think I can safely say I failed miserably!